Philosophy may be approached in various ways, although a question whether the development of philosophy determines a special historical telos keeps emerging. Or whether, despite sometimes seemingly unsurpassable differences in the comprehension of philosophy, there is some kind of unique, inner harmony. Philosophy can be discussed both in various ways and always the same. It is exactly this collected weight of accessing philosophy, perhaps at a completely personal level, but simultaneously touching what applies to the general truth. This is essentially the difference between philosophy and any other science, religion, ideology and the quotidian, thus making all attempts of criticism inadequately short in their inertness.
Our faith in the truthfulness is based on the perseverance in re-examining the truth, which best features historical development of philosophy. This critical approach to philosophy has determined our life attitudes we link to European humanism. Studying philosophy is thus always going back to those sources whose cloaked values we wrap up our existence with remain forgotten. Remembrance of the origin is the ultimate way of philosophical comprehension shaping up this particular “Western” figure of humanity.
What is special about it is the ability, although its long-lost originality makes it hard to fathom its original sense, to express its mind through speech. The speech is what makes us believe in prudence and truth, while being elusive at the same time. The speech is the original movement, perceived in the flow of words while attempting to encompass concepts, and the detachment between the meaning and sense. Inasmuch modern philosophy is trying to find the world, en route to speech.
This work includes studies on the history of philosophy and modern philosophy. Sophistic interpretation of speech and philosophical problem of comprehension as memories in Plato are being discussed within the framework of the origins of philosophy. Furthermore, philosophical perception of God in Descartes as of one pinnacles of modern philosophy is being reflected. The criticism of the cognition criteria of philosophy and the relationship of philosophy and art are being developed in the example of Nietzsche. Modern philosophy is approached from two perspectives – phenomenological and conceptual-historical. The core of the study is the problem of lingual expression and the construct of human science, once again studied within the context of history of terms.
The basic goal of treatises is an attempt to extrapolate particularity of philosophical procedures by analysing key topoi in philosophy, while connected with lingual mediation and culture that outline its spiritual horizon. In modern times the horizon is designated through the crisis of philosophical knowledge emerging from particularities of historical formation of philosophy, on one hand, and reinforcing the lack of any particularity of our times where philosophical search is lost to various substantiated know-how. Yet, all these combined cannot solve, nor they even question, the unique purpose of the world which enables them to experience it.
In terms of uncovering one’s own suppositions in comparison to “substantiated know-how”, philosophy is essentially obliged to its own historical horizon, or rather, lingual maturity. This enables philosophy to immerse into the quotidian, while surpassing its lingual limitations at the same time. Thus philosophy is bound to connect with art and religion, i.e. brings artistic creation and religion closer together in the way it reveals the potential of the original experience. Philosophy therefore remains the same contemplation on the origins and foundations, or the peak and the bottom if, of course, we are still able to acknowledge it. But failure to acknowledge it, as a time-related gesture, also requires philosophical comprehension.